Carlos Cruz-Diezborn 1923, Venezuela
Carlos Cruz-Diez

“Art is a complex structure of communication, expression, discovery, invention.”


Born in Caracas, Carlos Cruz-Diez first studied art at the Escuela de Artes Plásticas y Aplicadas from 1940 to 1945. While studying there, he participated in a lively discussion group which included artists Jesús Rafael Soto and Alejandro Otero, key figures of the Venezuelan kinetic art movement. He was also influenced by his study of impressionism, as it applied to experiments with color. In his earliest work, Cruz-Diez painted figurative canvases intended to reflect and comment upon social issues. In 1954, influenced by his study of the Bauhaus and the European avant-garde, Cruz-Diez created his first abstract and interactive projects. A year later, he began a series of Objetos rítmicos móviles that consisted of multicolored, movable figures made from wood and, in 1957, he began experimenting with colored light. His first Physichromie--translated as "physical color" these works explore the physical dimension of color--was made in 1959. The following year, Cruz-Diez and his family moved to Paris, where he met Argentine artist Luis Tomasello, and members of the Groupe de Recherche d’Art Visuel, and he quickly became an important member of the artistic communities there. 


In 1971, Cruz-Diez established his workshop on the rue Pierre Sémard, in a former Belle Epoque-era butcher’s shop. From that workshop, where he continues to work, he pursued his explorations of color and light with Physichromies, Chromosaturations, Chromo-interference Environments, and large-scale public projects, all of which were developed as investigations into visual and perceptual experiences of color. The artist describes his Chromosaturation series as the exploration of an often-unnoticed reality: “That reality (which I consider visible) leads us along other paths, both perceptive and sensory, to parallel ideas of beauty and sublimation.” Cruz-Diez is internationally considered a master artist of the 20th and 21st centuries for his contributions to the theory and practice of color.



2015: Carlos Cruz-Diez: A Chromatic Condition, Sicardi Gallery, Houston, TX, USA

2014: Cruz-Diez en noir et blanc, Maison de l'Amérique Latine, Paris, France

Circonstance et Ambiguïté de la Couleur, Fondation Vasarely, Aix-en-Provence, France

Didactic and Dialectice of Color, Casa Daros, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

2013: Carlos Cruz-Diez, Light Show, Hayward Gallery, Southbank Centre, London, England

2012: Carlos Cruz-Diez, Sicardi Gallery, Houston

Carlos Cruz-Diez: Circumstance and Ambiguity of Color, Jiangsu Provincial Art Museum, Nanjing, China; Henan Art Museum, Zhengzhou, China

Carlos Cruz-Diez: Color in Space, Jeonbuk Province Art Museum, Jeonbuk, South Korea; Dream Forest Arts Center, Sang Sang Tok Tok Gallery, Seoul, South Korea

2011: Carlos Cruz-Diez: Color in Space and Time, The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (MFAH), Houston, TX, USA

2010: Carlos Cruz Diez: The Embodied Experience of Color, Pérez Art Museum Miami, FL, USA

Environment Chromatic-Interferences, Guangdong Museum of Art, Guangdong, China

Circonstance et Ambiguite de la Couleur, Galerie Denise René, Espace Marais, Paris, France

2009: Carlos Cruz-Diez. El Color Sucede, Museu d'Art Espanyol Cotemporani, Palma, Spain; Museo de Arte Abstracto Español, Cuenca, Spain

2008: (In)formed by Color: Carlos Cruz-Diez, Americas Society, New York, NY, USA

2007: Carte Blanche, Denise René Gallery, Paris
, France

La Couleur Dans L’Espace, Maison de l’Amerique Latine, Paris, France

Carlos Cruz-Diez, Sicardi Gallery, Houston, TX, USA

2005: Carlos Cruz-Diez, Gego, Jesus-Rafael Soto, Works from the 1950’s to 1970’s, Sicardi Gallery, Art Basel Miami Beach, Miami, FL, USA

Carlos Cruz-Diez: Interactive Random Chromatic Experience, Sicardi Gallery, Houston, TX, USA


Carlos Cruz-Diez’s work has also been displayed prominently in numerous historically significant group exhibitions including Inverted Utopias: Avant-Garde Art in Latin America at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (2004); The Responsive Eye at the Museum of Modern Art, New York (1967); Latin American Art 1931-1966 at the Museum of Modern Art, New York (1967); and Latin American Artists of the Twentieth Century at the Museum of Modern Art, New York (1993).



Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, France

Bibliotheque Nationale, Zagreb, Croatia

Blanton Museum of Art, Austin, TX, USA

Cabinet des Estampes, Geneva, Switzerland

Casa de las Americas, Havana, Cuba

Centre de la Gravure et de l’Image Imprimee, Belgium

Centre National d’Art Contemporain Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France

Collection of Latin American Art, University of Essex, Colchester, UK

Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambrige University, Cambridge, UK

Galeria de Arte Nacional, Caracas, Venezuela

Kunstmuseum, Bern, Switzerland

Kunstverein Gelsenkirchen, Germany

Musee d’Art Contemporain, Montreal, Canada

Musee d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, France

Musee de Grenoble, France

Musee de la Chaux-des-Fonds, Switzerland

Museo Civico, Turin, Italy

Museo de Arte Contemporáneo Sofia Imber, Caracas, Venezuela

Museo de Arte Contemporáneo, Bogotá, Colombia       

Museo de Arte Costarricense, San Jose, Costa Rica

Museo de Arte Moderno “Jesus Soto,” Ciudad Bolivar, Venezuela

Museo de Arte Moderno de Medellín, Colombia

Museo de Arte Moderno, “La Tertulia,” Cali, Colombia

Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas, Venezuela

Museo de la Solidaridad, Salvador Allende, Santiago de Chile

Museu de Arte Moderna, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil      

Museum des 20, Jahrhundert, Vienna, Austria

Museum für Konkrete Kunst, Ingolstadt, Germany

Museum Moderner Kunst, Cuxhaven Otterndorf, Germany

The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (MFAH), Houston, TX, USA

The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York, NY, USA

The Museum of Modern Art, Sydney, Australia

The Museum of Modern Art, Taipei, Taiwan

Museum Rhode Island, School of Design, Providence, RI, USA

Muzeum Okregowe, Chelm, Poland

Neue Pinakothek, Munich, Germany           

Palm Springs Desert Museum, Palm Springs, California

Quadrat Josef Albers Museum, Bottrop, Germany

Sonja Henie-Musee d’Art Moderne, Hovikodden, Oslo, Norway

Stadtische Kunsthalle, Manneheim, Germany

Tate Gallery, Millbank, London, UK

Victoria and Albert Museum, London, UK

Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Dr. Peter Ludwig Collection, Cologne, France

Wurth Museum, Schawabish Hall, Germany


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